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Japanese Buddhism, Photo Dictionary of Japan's Shinto and Buddhist DivinitiesRETURN TO TOP PAGE of Japanese Buddhist Statuary A to Z Photo Library & Dictionary of Gods, Goddesses, Shinto Kami, Creatures, and DemonsCopyright and Usage PoliciesJump to Sister Store Selling Handcrafted Buddha Statues from China, Japan, and Asia
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QUICK START
Home: What's New
Buddha's Teachings
History & Timeline
Historical Buddha
Student's Guide
Teacher's Guide

DEITY GUIDES
Who's Who
Buddha
Bodhisattva
Myo-o
Shinto Kami
Shugendo
Stars & Planets
Tenbu (Deva)

OTHER GUIDES
About Site Author
Bibliography
Buddhism in Japan
Busshi Glossary
Carving Techniques
Cycle of Suffering
Drapery/Robe Guide
Mandala Guide
Mudra Guide
Objects Guide
Pilgrimage Guide
Shinto Guide
Statues by Artist
Statues by Era
Symbols Guide
Terminology

Buddhist-Artwork.com, our sister site, offers online sales of hand-carved wood Buddha statues.
Buddhist-Artwork.com, our sister site, offers online sales of hand-carved wood Buddha statues.

A TO Z INDEX
3 Element Stele
3 Monkeys
4 Bosatsu
4 Celestial Emblems
4 Heavenly Kings
5 (Number Five)
5 Elements
5 Tathagata
5 Tier Pagoda
5 Wisdom Kings
6 Jizo
6 Kannon
6 Realms
6 Nara Schools
7 Lucky Gods
7 Nara Temples
8 Legions
8 Zodiac Patrons
10 Kings of Hell
12 Devas
12 Generals
12 Zodiac Animals
13 Butsu (Funerals)
28 Legions
28 Constellations
30 Buddha of Month
30 Kami of Month
33 Kannon
About the Author
Agyo
Aizen
Amano Jyaku
Amida Nyorai
Apsaras
Arakan (Rakan)
Arhat (Rakan)
Ashuku Nyorai
Asuka Era Art Tour
Asura (Ashura)
Baku (Eats Dreams)
Bamboo
Benzaiten (Benten)
Bibliography
Big Buddha
Birushana Nyorai
Bishamon-ten
Bodhisattva
Bonbori Artwork
Bosatsu Group
Bosatsu of Mercy
Bosatsu on Clouds
Buddha (Historical)
Buddha Group
Buddha Statues
Busshi (Sculptors)
Calligraphy
Celestial Emblems
Celestial Maidens
Children Patrons
Classifying
Color Red
Confucius
Contact Us
Daibutsu
Daijizaiten
Daikokuten
Dainichi Nyorai
Daruma (Zen)
Datsueba (Hell Hag)
Deva (Tenbu)
Donations
Dosojin
Dragon
Drapery (Robes)
Early Buddhism Japan
Ebisu
Eight Legions
En no Gyoja
Estores
Family Tree
Footprints of Buddha
Fox (Inari)
Fudo (Fudou) Myoo
Fugen Bosatsu
Fujin (Wind God)
Fukurokuju
Gakko & Nikko
Gardens
Gigeiten
Godai Nyorai
Goddess of Mercy
Goddesses
Gongen
Gravestones
Hachi Bushu
Hachiman
Hands (Mudra)
Hell (10 Judges)
Hell Hag (Datsueba)
Hell Scrolls
Henge
Hikyu (Lion Beast)
Holy Mountains
Ho-o (Phoenix)
Hotei
Idaten
Inari (Fox)
Ishanaten
Ishidoro (Ishidourou)
Jikokuten
Jizo Bosatsu
Jocho Busshi
Juni Shi
Juni Shinsho
Juni Ten
Junrei (Pilgrimage)
Jurojin
Juuzenji
Jyaki or Tentoki
Kaikei Busshi
Kamakura Buddhism
Kankiten
Kannon Bosatsu
Kappa
Kariteimo (Kishibojin)
Karura
Karyoubinga
Kendatsuba
Kichijouten
Kitchen Gods
Kishibojin (Kariteimo)
Kitsune (Oinari)
Kokuzo Bosatsu
Koujin (Kojin)
Komokuten
Korean Buddhism
Koushin
Lanterns (Stone)
Links
Making Statues
Mandara (Mandala)
Maneki Neko
Marishiten (Marici)
Miroku Bosatsu
Monju Bosatsu
Monkeys
Moon Lodges
Mother Goddess
Mudra (Hands)
Myoken (Pole Star)
Myo-o
Nara Era Art Tour
Newsletter Sign Up
Nijuhachi Bushu
Nikko & Gakko
Ninpinin
Nio Protectors
Nyorai Group
Objects & Symbols
Onigawara
Phoenix (Ho-o)
Pilgrimage Guide
Pottery
Protective Stones
Raigo Triad
Raijin (Thunder God)
Rakan (Arhat)
Red Clothing
Reincarnation
Robes (Drapery)
Rock Gardens
Sanbo Kojin
Sanno Gongen
Sarutahiko
Sculptors (Busshi)
Seishi Bosatsu
Sendan Kendatsuba
Seven Lucky Gods
Shachi, Shachihoko
Shaka Nyorai
Shape Shifters
Shichifukujin
Shijin (Shishin)
Shinra Myoujin
Shinto Clergy
Shinto Concepts
Shinto Kami
Shinto Main Menu
Shinto Sects
Shinto Shrines
Shishi (Lion)
Shitenno
Shoki
Shomen Kongo
Shotoku Taishi
Shrines
Shugendo
Siddhartha
Six States
Star Deities
Stone Gardens
Stone Graves
Stone Lanterns
Stones (Top Menu)
Suijin (Water Kami)
Symbols & Objects
Tamonten
Taishakuten
Tanuki
Temples
Temple Lodging
Tenbu Group
Tengu
Tennin & Tennyo
Tentoki or Jyaki
Terminology
Tibetan Carpets
Tibet Photos
Tibetan Tanka
Transmigration
Ungyo
Unkei Busshi
Videos on Buddhism
Water Basin
Weapons
Wheel of Life
Yakushi Nyorai
Yasha (Yaksha)
Zao Gongen
Zen (Daruma)
Zen Art Tour
Zodiac Calendar
Zochoten

 


 
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Bukkyo, Bukkyou = Japanese Spelling for the term "Buddhism," literally the "Teachings of Buddha."
Bukkyō 仏教
Japanese for Buddhism
Literally “Teachings of Buddha

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TEACHER’S CONDENSED GUIDE
Japanese Buddhism & Buddhist Statuary


Integrated Guide to Buddhism
and Buddhist Statuary in Japan

Your launch pad into the history & development
of Buddhism and Buddhist artwork in Japan.

This Page:      What is Buddhism?   |   Deity Who’s Who   |   Why Japan Adopted Buddhism

The Dharma Wheel -- Represents the Teaching of Buddhist tenets.JUMP TO OUR FEATURE ARTICLE
Condensed Guide: Japanese Buddhism & Japanese Buddhist Statuary.
Created especially for teachers & students of Japanese Buddhism. It presents everything on one page for easy printout, with links to relevant topics and reference notes. Covers all periods, from the Asuka era (6th century) into modern times.

Other Site Pages:
Buddhism Before Japan
- India (Hindu)
- Sanskrit and Mantras
- The Historical Buddha
- Guide to Buddha’s Teachings
- Three Main Schools
       Theravada Buddhism
       Mahayana Buddhism
       Vajrayana Buddhism
- Early Rifts in Buddhism
- Karma, Reincarnation, 6 States
- Theravada/Mahayana Compared
- Glossary of Terms & Concepts

Early Influences
- Chinese Confucianism
- Chinese Zodiac (Yin-Yang)
- Chinese Taoism

Other Site Pages:
Buddhism in Japan
- Why Japan adopted Buddhism
- Condensed Guide (All Periods)
- Shintoism in Japan
- Early Buddhism (6th to 9th C)
- Prince Shotoku Taishi
- 6 Schools, 7 Temples of Nara

Buddhist Statuary in Japan
- Who made statues (Busshi)
- How deities are classified
- How statues are made
- When & Where

Photo Tours Japan
- Asuka Photo Tour (+50)
- Nara Photo Tour (+40) 

 

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WHO’S WHO
CLASSIFYING BUDDHIST DEITIES
Standard Classification in Japan
Most Deities Originated in India
Click any group in below image to get started.

Standard Japanese Classification of Buddha Statues & Deities; Buddha, Bodhisattva, Vidyaraja, and DevaJump to Nyorai (Buddha Statues) Intro PageJump to Bosatsu (Bodhisattva Statues) Intro PageJump to Myo-o (Vidyaraja Statues) Intro PageJump to Tenbu (Deva & Other Statues) Intro PageJump to Timeline and History of Buddhism in Asia and JapanJump to Busshi Pages - Who Made Japan's Buddha Statues & Buddhist Art?

red ball -- your current locationPending Pages

  • What is Japanese Taoism?
  • What are the main sects of Japanese Buddhism?
  • Who are the founders of Japan’s main Buddhist sects?
  • What are the objects held or worn by the Buddhist deities?
  • What are the main sutras / texts of Japanese Buddhism?
  • Why are there so many Buddhist deities?
  • Heian Era Photo Tour, Kamakura Era Photo Tour, etc.
  • Japanese Funerals and Concepts of Hell
  • Japanese Weddings and Other Common Ceremonies
  • Special Court Rituals and Major National Ceremonies

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Svastikah, the Indian symbol, not the Nazi symbol, is derived from Sanskrit word SVASTIKAH meaning FORTUNATE.

. A symbol originating in India. Known as the Kyoji 胸字 (Kyōji) in Japan. Found frequently in India on the chest of Lord Vishnu. In Japan it is used as a symbol of Buddhist faith, one found frequently on statues of the Buddha (Jp. = Nyorai 如来) and Bodhisattva (Jp. = Bosatsu 菩薩), and one of the 32 Marks of the Buddha (Sanjūnisō 三十二相). It represents the ”possession of all virtues” in Japanese Buddhism. See Footprints of Buddha for more.

spacerWhat is Buddhism? Buddhism originated in India around 500 BCE. Called Bukkyo (Bukkyō) 仏教 in Japanese, Buddhism is a philosophical system of rigorous mental and physical practice that attempts to end all suffering, pain, and karmic rebirth by adherence to strict ethical and spiritual guidelines. Founded by Gautama Siddhartha, who forsook his royal life, family, and society in a quest to eliminate material desires and mundane concerns. After achieving enlightenment, he was called Shaka Buddha 釈迦如来 (the Historical Buddha). See Guide to the Teachings of Buddha to explore the main tenets of his philosophy.

Buddhism swept quickly (some 1000 years) across Asia, splitting into three main schools as it evolved. It came last to Japan, crossing the sea from Korea around 552 AD. The Mahayana form in particular gained the patronage of Japan’s imperial court and nobility, thus the majority of surviving Buddhist sculpture in Japan today belongs to the Mahayana tradition. Artwork belonging to the Theravada and Vajrayana (Esoteric) traditions is less prominent, but it is nonetheless plentiful. Sects from all three schools are still active in Japan, but Mahayana Buddhism remains the most popular form. Buddhism remained confined largely to the nobility and imperial court until the 13th century, but thereafter it spread rapidly among the common people. Despite early conflict with the native Shinto faith, Buddhism soon gained acceptance and developed alongside Shinto in a great syncretic merger, one generally marked by religious tolerance. Elements of Hinduism インド教 (Indokyō), Taoism 道教 (Dōkyō), and Confucianism 儒教 (Jukyō) were also eagerly adopted by the Japanese, as was China’s Zodiac calendar 干支 (Kanshi or Eto). Today, Japanese Buddhism is a rich tapestry of beliefs, rituals, and superstitions that incorporates all these diverse elements. 

 

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Lotus - Sacred Plant of Buddhism in AsiaWhy did Japan absorb then assimilate Buddhism?
Buddhism was adopted by Japan’s rulers primarily to establish social order and political control, and to join the larger and more sophisticated cultural sphere of the mainland. Buddhism brought new theories on government, a means to establish strong centralized authority, a system for writing, advanced new methods for building and for casting in bronze, and new techniques and materials for painting. Buddhism’s introduction to Japan in +552 was accompanied by the arrival thereafter of countless artisans, priests, and scholars from Korea and China, with numerous Japanese missions dispatched to the mainland. Japan first learned of Buddhism from Korea, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism and Buddhist sculpture was primarily influenced by China. According to tradition, Buddhism was introduced to Japan in +552 (other sources say +538) when the king of the Korean Kingdom of Paekche (Jp. = Kudara 百済) sent the Japanese Yamato 大和 court a small gilt bronze Buddha statue, some Buddhist scriptures, and a message praising Buddhism. Scholars continue to disagree on the exact date of the statue’s arrival. The Nihonshoki 日本書紀, one of Japan’s oldest extant documents, says the statue was presented sometime during the reign of Emperor Kinmei 欽明 (ruled from + 539 to 571). For details, see Early Japanese Buddhism. In addition, Buddhism represented a superior religious philosophy compared to the shamanistic mountain worship of the indiginous Shinto faith. Not surprisingly, Buddhism gained the patronage of the court, who endeavored to use it as both a political and spiritual tool for building a stronger nation.

One of the first great patrons of Buddhism in Japan was Prince Shotoku Taishi 聖徳太子 (+ 574 - 622). He embraced the new faith and fostered its acceptance as both a superior religious philosophy and a powerful political tool for creating strong centralized governance under the emperor’s guidance. Shotoku (Shōtoku) is credited with constructing numerous temples, and with centralizing state administration, importing Chinese bureaucracy, codifying twelve court ranks, and enacting a 17 Article Constitution that established Buddhist ethics and Confucian ideals as the moral foundations of the young Japanese nation. During his regency, Japanese missions (outside link) were dispatched to China to learn more and bring back valuable Buddhist texts and objects. In addition to court patronage, another reason for Japan’s embrace of Buddhism involved the notion of “building spiritual merit” for oneself and others. Known as Chishiki (知識) in Japanese and translated as “pious contribution.” Originally a Sanskrit term (mitra) meaning “friend” or “companion,” in Japan it came to designate any person who spread the Buddhist teachings in hopes of saving others. Chishiki was a means to accumulate religious and spiritual merit and thus improve one’s own chance of salvation. It came in many forms, from those who founded and maintained temples, to those who devoted their money, land, or efforts to advance the cause of Buddhism. The Chishiki ideal came to prominence with Emperor Shomu 聖武 (Shōmu; reigned +724 to 749) in Japan’s Nara period. Shomu ordered the construction of a giant bronze Buddha statue, one to be financed by the “pious contributions” of devotees, parishioners, and lay people. The “chishiki” ideal meant that the benefits of contructing and maintaining the giant statue would accrue to anyone who participated in the endeavor, no matter how small their contribution. The concept resonated deeply among Japan’s nobility and common people. Even today, the Chishiki ideal remains a major pillar of Buddhist practice in Japan. 

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ENGLISH RESOURCES

  • JAANUS. Japanese Architecture & Art Net Users System. In my mind, JAANUS is the best online database available on Japanese art history. Compiled by the late Dr. Mary Neighbour Parent, it covers both Buddhist and Shinto deities in great detail and contains over 8,000 entries.
     
  • Dr. Gabi Greve. See her page on Japanese Busshi. Gabi-san did most of the research and writing for the Edo Period through the Modern era. She is a regular site contributor, and maintains numerous informative web sites on topics from Haiku to Daruma. Many thanks Gabi-san !!!!
     
  • Sculpture of the Kamakura Period (Heibonsha, John Weatherhill)spacerHeibonsha, Sculpture of the Kamakura Period. By Hisashi Mori, from the Heibonsha Survey of Japanese Art. Published jointly by Heibonsha (Tokyo) & John Weatherhill Inc. A book close to my heart, this publication devotes much time to the artists who created the sculptural treasures of the Kamakura era, including Unkei, Tankei, Kokei, Kaikei, and many more. Highly recommended. 1st Edition 1974. ISBN 0-8348-1017-4. Buy at Amazon.

  • Classic Buddhist Sculpture: The Tempyo Period. By author Jiro Sugiyama, translated by Samuel Crowell Morse. Published in 1982 by Kodansha International. 230 pages and 170 photos. English text devoted to Japan’s Asuka through Early Heian periods and the development of Buddhist sculpture during that time. ISBN-10: 0870115294. Buy at Amazon.
     
  • Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture.spacerThe Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture, AD 600-1300. By Nishikawa Kyotaro and Emily J Sano, Kimbell Art Museum (Fort Worth) and Japan House Gallery, 1982. 50+ photos and a wonderfully written overview of each period. Includes handy section on techniques used to make the statues.  The Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture (AD 300 - 1300).

  • Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art by Ernest F. Fenollosa, published by ICG Muse Inc. ISBN 4-925080-29-6. English. Originally published in 1912, but new edition in 2000. Highly recommended book on Buddhist sculpture in Japan. Although Fenollosa's views on art history are often discredited by modern art historians, this is still an excellent book on Buddhist sculpture in Japan.
     
  • Ernest Fenollosa, "The Coming Fusion of East and West." Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 98, December 1898
     
  • Ernest Fenollosa, The Chinese Written Character as a Medium for Poetry. Ed. Ezra Pound. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1936

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Dharma WheelspacerJAPANESE BOOKS

  • Comprehensive Dictionary of Japan's National Treasures. (国宝大事典 (西川 杏太郎). Published by Kodansha Ltd. 1985. 404 pages, hardcover, over 300 photos, mostly color, many full-page spreads. Japanese Language Only. ISBN 4-06-187822-0.
     
  • Bosatsu on Clouds, Byodo-in Temple. Catalog, May 2000. Published by Byodoin Temple. Produced by Askaen Inc. and Nissha Printing Co. Ltd. 56 pages, Japanese language (with small English essay). Over 50 photos, both color, B&W. Some photos at this site were scanned from this book. Of particular use when studying the life and work of Jocho Busshi.
     
  • Visions of the Pure Land: Treasures of Byodo-in Temple
    Catalog, 2000. Published by Asahi Shimbun. Artwork from Byodo-in Temple. 228 pages, Japanese language with English index of works. Over 100 photos, color and B&W. Some photos at this site were scanned from this book. No longer in print. Of particular use when studying the life and work of Jocho Busshi.
     
  • Numerous Japanese-language temple and museum catalogs, magazines, books, and web sites. See Japanese Bibliography for extended list.

JAPANESE WEB SITES

CHINESE WEB SITES

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ONLINE STORE SELLING BUDDHA STATUES
Buddhist-Artwork.com, our sister site, launched in July 2006. This online store sells quality hand-carved wooden statues of many Buddhist deities, especially those carved for the Japanese market. It is aimed at art lovers, Buddhist practitioners, and laity alike. Just like this site (OnmarkProductions.com), it is not associated with any educational institution, private corporation, governmental agency, or religious group. 

Jump to our sister site selling hand-carved wooden Buddha Statues from Japan, China, and SE Asia

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This Page First Published Sept. 8, 2007

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